December 22, 2007

perth the real battle

India's win is just their fifth on Australian soil in the 60 years of Test matches between the teams played in this country, and the first time in 11 years that Australia has lost a Test in Perth.

It is also the first time Australia has been defetaed in a Test match since going down to England in the fourth Test of the 2005 Ashes series at Trent Bridge, and halts an unbroken run of 16 victories that began against South Africa in the Boxing Day Test of 2005-06.

Australia enjoyed a strong opening hour on the fourth day, with Ricky Ponting building on a good start the previous evening. Mike Hussey supported his skipper as the pair added 74 for the third wicket. They looked set to push the home side back into the contest before Ponting was deceived on 45, edging to Dravid off Sharma.
Worse was to follow after lunch with Hussey (46) falling lbw to RP Singh and Symonds following in a similar fashion courtesy of Anil Kumble for 12.

Michael Clarke produced the most fluent batting display of the innings with a stylish and measured 81, and he may well have proved the difference had he not started to run out of partners to chase down the record total.

Adam Gilchrist threatened to unleash with one signature pull stroke, but even he could not withstand the Indian pressure. Part-time spinner Virender Sehwag claimed the valuable scalp, bowling him around his legs as the keeper attempted a sweep stroke.

Brett Lee came and went without troubling the scorers as Sehwag picked up a second wicket, putting India within touching distance of a famous win.

However a rearguard action was delivered by Mitchell Johnson, who blazed his way to a first career Test half century with some truly breathtaking shots. Stuart Clark formed the perfect ally and the pair threw the bat at anything bowled in their immediate direction.

Both batsmen rode their luck with several near misses, but India finally struck the telling breakthrough when Clark edged one to Dhoni off Man of the Match Irfan Pathan (3-54). He had made a heroic 32.

Australia's fate was sealed when Shaun Tait was clean bowled by the impressive Singh for four, dismissing the home side for 340, with Johnson unbeaten on 50.

The final wicket sparked jubilous celebrations among Indian players and fans alike, with Harbhajan Singh charging to the pitch with the National Flag in hand. The series ledger is now back to 2-1 in Australia's favour, and the 3 mobile Test Series moves to its final stop in Adelaide with a genuine contest expected to result in a sizeable crowd over the Australia Day long weekend.

Adelaide Oval

Adelaide Oval is widely regarded as the most picturesque Test cricket ground in the world, with St Peter's Cathedral rising behind an elegant Edwardian scoreboard and Moreton Bay fig trees at the northern end, the Mount Lofty Ranges to the east, and nearby city skyline to the south. The playing arena is 191 x 127 metres.

The first Test match was played in December 1884 and the record crowd for cricket is 50,962 during the Saturday of the Bodyline Test in January 1933. The highest attendance for any sport, however, belongs to football with 62,543 people attending the 1965 grand final between Port Adelaide and Sturt. The last football grand final at the Adelaide Oval was in 1973 and the largest crowd since then was the rock concert by Elton John and Billy Joel in 1998 which drew 37,000 patrons.

Unlike the other major sports grounds in Australia, Adelaide Oval has preserved its aesthetic charm. The western public and members grandstands, and the scoreboard are all items listed on the City of Adelaide Heritage Register, and the Sir Donald Bradman Stand which replaced the John Creswell Stand in 1990 complements the other stands magnificently.

November 22, 2007


Home to the nation's finest collection of racing memorabilia, the Australian Racing Museum immortalises some of the most significant events in our racing history.
Officially opened in 1981, under the patronage of HM Queen Elizabeth II, the Australian Racing Museum is the only museum of its kind devoted to horseracing in Australia. The Australian Racing Museum features a changing program of innovative exhibitions and topical displays.
Melbourne has a privatised public transport system comprising trains, trams and buses. Trams are the main form of transport throughout the Central Business District and run up and down most main streets. Trains are the main mode of transport throughout the greater Melbourne area.

The best way to get around the Central Business District is to catch the City Circle Tram, a free service that runs around the perimeter of the CBD. There is an excellent map of the CBD and its main points of interest on the website.

Travelling away from the CBD, your choice is catch a tram or a train (although bus services do operate to most areas).

Trams going outside the CBD run to the inner suburbs and in some instances a little further. There are different departure points throughout the CBD and you can check these here. A light rail service runs to the popular tourist destinations of St Kilda and Port Melbourne (Beacon Cove).

There are two main railway stations in the CBD:

Flinders Street Station, at the corner of Swanston and Flinders Streets, which is the main terminus for Melbourne metropolitan rail services; and

Southern Cross Station (previously Spencer Street Station), at the intersection of Bourke and Spencer Streets, which is the main hub for country rail services.

You can plan how to use Melbourne's public transport system using MetLink (includes all train, trams and bus services).

October 22, 2007


The SCC (formerly UTS Balmain Cricket Club) play in the world renowned Sydney Grade Cricket Competition. With over 100 years of history and tradition, SCC has long been a mainstay of the competition. During this time, many Balmainiacs (both male and female) have represented various city, state and national sides. In season 2006/07 there are 15 different sides representing the black and gold, nine of these mens and six women’s.

One Balmainiac stands on the verge of eclipsing one of Sydney Grade cricket’s longest standing and most significant record. Opening batsman Greg Hayne, also a member of the Balmain Team of the Century, requires a further 36 runs to become the greatest run scorer in SCA history. This is an amazing achievement, leaving Greg to be remembered forever as one of the clubs greatest ever players, as well as one of the finest in the history of cricket in Sydney.

2007/08 is one of great promise for SCC (formerly UTS Balmain). The men’s first grade side welcome back a couple of familiar faces in Mark Atkinson and Karl Whatham, and with Jason Krejza being appointed captain of a team of spirited and able competitors, first grade will be looking to have a far more productive season. Second grade, under the leadership of the Neil Maxwell will be hoping to go one better than the two runners-up positions they have finished in consecutive seasons. The loss of several experienced campaigners from the lower grades has left many holes to fill these voids and press for higher honors within the club.



During the late 18th and 19th centuries, Great Britain established colonies and protectorates in the area of current Malaysia; these were occupied by Japan from 1942 to 1945. In 1948, the British-ruled territories on the Malay Peninsula formed the Federation of Malaya, which became independent in 1957. Malaysia was formed in 1963 when the former British colonies of Singapore and the East Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak on the northern coast of Borneo joined the Federation. The first several years of the country's history were marred by Indonesian efforts to control Malaysia, Philippine claims to Sabah, and Singapore's secession from the Federation in 1965. During the 22-year term of Prime Minister MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (1981-2003), Malaysia was successful in diversifying its economy from dependence on exports of raw materials, to expansion in manufacturing, services, and tourism.
Malaysia, a middle-income country, transformed itself from 1971 through the late 1990s from a producer of raw materials into an emerging multi-sector economy. Growth was almost exclusively driven by exports - particularly of electronics. As a result, Malaysia was hard hit by the global economic downturn and the slump in the information technology (IT) sector in 2001 and 2002. The economy grew 4.9% in 2003, notwithstanding a difficult first half, when external pressures from Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and the Iraq War led to caution in the business community. Growth topped 7% in 2004 and 5% per year in 2005-06. As an oil and gas exporter, Malaysia has profited from higher world energy prices, although the rising cost of domestic gasoline and diesel fuel forced Kuala Lumpur to reduce government subsidies, contributing to higher inflation. Malaysia "unpegged" the ringgit from the US dollar in 2005 and the currency appreciated 6% against the dollar in 2006. Healthy foreign exchange reserves and a small external debt greatly reduce the risk that Malaysia will experience a financial crisis over the near term similar to the one in 1997. The economy remains dependent on continued growth in the US, China, and Japan - top export destinations and key sources of foreign investment. The government presented its five-year national development agenda in April 2006 through the Ninth Malaysia Plan, a comprehensive blueprint for the allocation of the national budget from 2006-10. The plan targets the development of higher value-added manufacturing and an expansion of the services sector.

October 14, 2007

Today in lab

Appada oru valiya ip and ooad print out eduthachu………we have only 6 printers for whole lab .But we have to take more than 400 pages print out …inspite of frequent power cuts and we do not have proper back up ,even for the power cut of 10 mins ……….our Lab is air conditioned but I have ever seen AC working .It is very stuffy,no one will feel of working in the lab.

September 22, 2007


The Maldives was long a sultanate, first under Dutch and then under British protection. It became a republic in 1968, three years after independence. Since 1978, President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM - currently in his sixth term in office - has dominated the islands' political scene. Following riots in the capital Male in August 2004, the president and his government pledged to embark upon democratic reforms, including a more representative political system and expanded political freedoms. Progress has been slow, however, and many promised reforms have been delayed indefinitely. Tourism and fishing are being developed on the archipelago.

Tourism, Maldives' largest industry, accounts for 28% of GDP and more than 60% of the Maldives' foreign exchange receipts. Over 90% of government tax revenue comes from import duties and tourism-related taxes. Fishing is the second leading sector. Agriculture and manufacturing continue to play a lesser role in the economy, constrained by the limited availability of cultivable land and the shortage of domestic labor. Most staple foods must be imported. Industry, which consists mainly of garment production, boat building, and handicrafts, accounts for about 7% of GDP. The Maldivian Government began an economic reform program in 1989 initially by lifting import quotas and opening some exports to the private sector. Subsequently, it has liberalized regulations to allow more foreign investment. Real GDP growth averaged over 7.5% per year for more than a decade. In late December 2004, a major tsunami left more than 100 dead, 12,000 displaced, and property damage exceeding $300 million. As a result of the tsunami, the GDP contracted by about 3.6% in 2005. A rebound in tourism, post-tsunami reconstruction, and development of new resorts helped boost GDP by about 18 percent in 2006. The trade deficit has expanded sharply as a result of high oil prices and imports of construction material. Diversifying beyond tourism and fishing is the major challenge facing the government. Over the longer term Maldivian authorities worry about the impact of erosion and possible global warming on their low-lying country; 80% of the area is one meter or less above sea level.

August 17, 2007

Advantage Auto quotes

Advatage Auto quotes
This is a boon to all transports and travels.As there are many accidents occuring in day-to-day life,it is neccessary to insure your vechicles especially travels.But most of them will be in dilemma to which company to choose and what are the different schemes.

Here comes solution Advantage Auto quotes provides insuarance with respect to your needs.
There are many insurace schemes,coverage for sports car it covers for the sports car,then it also covers forPoor Driver Auto Insurance Rates and Teen Driver Auto Policy .
Thus rambled at by natarajan

August 16, 2007

blogsvertise: a gift for bloggers

It is a great oppurtunity for bloggers to get revenue from their blogs .unlike other sponser review ,it is easy to register and also i recommend this for beginners.You can register in blogsvertise and enjoy earning through your blog

lyrics 3

நெஞ்சிருக்கும் வரைக்கும் நினைவிருக்கும் நெஞ்சிருக்கும் வரைக்கும் நினைவிருக்கும் அந்த நினைவினில் அவர் முகம் நிறைந்திருக்கும் நெஞ்சிருக்கும் வரைக்கும் நினைவிருக்கும் அந்த நினைவினில் அவர் முகம் நிறைந்திருக்கும் எந்தன் நெஞ்சிருக்கும் வரைக்கும் நினைவிருக்கும்

கொஞ்சும் இளமை குடியிருக்கும் கொஞ்சும் இளமை குடியிருக்கும் பார்வை குறுகுறுக்கும் மேனி பரபரக்கும் எந்தன் நெஞ்சிருக்கும் வரைக்கும் நினைவிருக்கும் அந்த நினைவினில் அவர் முகம் நிறைந்திருக்கும் எந்தன் நெஞ்சிருக்கும் வரைக்கும் நினைவிருக்கும்

வாளினிலே ஒருகை ம‌ல‌ர்ந்திருக்கும் வாளினிலே ஒருகை ம‌ல‌ர்ந்திருக்கும் மறுகை மங்கை என் முகம் தேடி அசைந்திருக்கும் வாளினிலே ஒருகை ம‌ல‌ர்ந்திருக்கும் மறுகை மங்கை என் முகம் தேடி அசைந்திருக்கும் தோளினிற்கும் மலைக்கும் தொடர்பிருக்கும் தோளினிற்கும் மலைக்கும் தொடர்பிருக்கும் இந்த தோகைகென்றே இதயம் திறந்திருக்கும் எந்தன் நெஞ்சிருக்கும் வரைக்கும் நினைவிருக்கும் அந்த நினைவினில் அவர் முகம் நிறைந்திருக்கும் எந்தன் !

find the movie,music composer and lyris

August 14, 2007

marina Beach

Marina beach situated to the east of Chennai .This is one of the longest beach in world,as it stretches about 12kms.The day starts here with fishermen vunturing into the sea for thier
survival later at 6am you can find many people doing exercise .There is an aquarium nearby
which has large species of fishes,there is also a swimming pool for those can't afford to pay
more money and get coaching can learn swimming at 15rs per day.Marina,elliots beach decent
but i won't say about the others .If u come after 8pm to kannagi beach you can enjoy the scenery,u know when you visit.appada oru post pottachu

lyrics 2

கல்யாணம் ! நம் கல்யாணம் காதல் கல்யாண‌ வைபோகம் கொண்டாடுவோம் உல்லாச சிங்கார பண் பாடுவோம் நாம் பண் பாடுவோம் கல்யாணம் நம் கல்யாணம் காதல் கல்யாண‌ வைபோகம் கொண்டாடுவோம் உல்லாச சிங்கார பண் பாடுவோம் நாம் பண் பாடுவோம்

ஆஆஆஆஆஅ ஆஆஆ.... ஆஆஆஆ மாமலர் சோலை மாளிகை போலே மாமலர் சோலை மாளிகை போலே மலைமீதில் நீரோடை அலைமோதும் வேளை கல்யாணம் ! நம் கல்யாணம் காதல் கல்யாண‌ வைபோகம் கொண்டாடுவோம் உல்லாச சிங்கார பண் பாடுவோம் நாம் பண் பாடுவோம்

இனிதான‌ ஆசைக‌ள் நினைவாகி வாழ்வில் ம‌ண‌மான‌ இந்நாளில் இனியேது காத‌ல் ? இனிதான‌ ஆசைக‌ள் நினைவாகி வாழ்வில் ம‌ண‌மான‌ இந்நாளில் இனியேது காத‌ல் ? ம‌ண‌மான‌தால் குண‌ம் மாறுமா ? ம‌ண‌மான‌தால் குண‌ம் மாறுமா ? ம‌றையாத‌ ஆன‌ந்த‌ம் குறையாகுமா கல்யாணம் நம் கல்யாணம் காதல் கல்யாண‌ வைபோகம் கொண்டாடுவோம் உல்லாச சிங்கார பண் பாடுவோம் நாம் பண் பாடுவோம்

ஆஆஆஆஆஆஆஅ..ஆஆஆஆ... காதல் வாழ்வென்னும் கடல்மீதில் நாமே கனிவோடு நீந்தி கரை காணுவோமே இல்வாழ்க்கையே நல்வாழ்க்கையாய் எந்நாளும் சிங்கார‌ பண்பாடுவோம்

கல்யாணம் நம் கல்யாணம் காதல் கல்யாண‌ வைபோகம் கொண்டாடுவோம் உல்லாச சிங்கார பண் பாடுவோம் நாம் பண் பாடுவோம் ! கல்யாணம் நம் கல்யாணம்.....

film,singer,lyrics,music composer

general quiz

1. Which is the first movie of the famous model Lisa Ray?
2.The Vedanta Academy is located at
3.Who was the first Indian woman to win a medal in the Olympics?
4. India's first Antarctica expedition was carried out in
5.India's first satellite was launched in
6.The ISRO was founded by
7.Which Committee was formed to look into the functioning of CSIR?
8.Who among the following is regarded as the 'Father of Surgery'?
9.Name the only Bengali film produced by the late Raj Kapoor.
10.Who was the first Indian female child star?
Those who are answering all 10 will get cash award*

August 10, 2007


Ore raagam ore thaalam ore paadal paaduthamma Ore raagam ore thaalam ore paadal paaduthamma Kangal silaipole asaiamal paarkum Penmai thavaramal oru vaarthai koorum aaaaaa...... Kangal silaipole asaiamal paarkum Penmai thavaramal oru vaarthai koorum Indru malar solvathum Vaaazhai maram solvathum Enthan manam solvathum Ore peyarallavo Indru malar solvathum Vaaazhai maram solvathum Enthan manam solvathum Ore peyarallavo (r)

Andru gunathodu manam kondu nindren Indru kulathodu manam pesa kanden aaaaa.... Paarvai vayalanathe aasai mazhayanade Kaadal payiranathe Endrum nilayanathe paarvai vayalanathe aasai mazhayanade Kaadal payiranathe Endrum nilayanathe
find which film the song is
who is the singer
who has wrote lyrics
who composed music for this film

June 27, 2007

Eiffel Tower

It was almost torn down in 1909, but was saved because of its antenna - used for telegraphy at that time. Beginning in 1910 it became part of the International Time Service. French radio (since 1918), and French television (since 1957) have also made use of its stature.
During its lifetime, the Eiffel Tower has also witnessed a few strange scenes, including being scaled by a mountaineer in 1954, and parachuted off of in 1984 by two Englishmen. In 1923 a journalist rode a bicycle down from the first level. Some accounts say he rode down the stairs, other accounts suggest the exterior of one of the tower's four legs which slope outward.
However, if its birth was difficult, it is now completely accepted and must be listed as one of the symbols of Paris itself.

June 26, 2007

Pyramid a wonder

There are several structures in Greece that archaeologists have called pyramids. Dotted throughout the landscape are remains of buildings that were described by ancient travelers as pyramids, they were first excavated by Americans and Germans in the early 1930s and the 1990s.
Pausanias, a Greek traveler in the second century A.D. described several of the structures as pyramids. One of these pyramids was located in Helleniko, Ελληνικό in Greek,a village near Argos near the ancient ruins of Tiryns.[1] The story surrounding the monument was that it was built as a polyandria, a common grave, for those soldiers who had fallen in the struggle for the throne of Argos back in the 14th Century B.C. He described the structure as something that resembled a pyramid with the decorations of Argolic shields, showing the military connection to it. Another pyramid that Pausanias saw on his journeys was at Kenchreai, another polyandria dedicated to the Argives and Spartans who lost their lives at the Battle of Hysiai in 669 B.C. Unfortunately neither of these structures remain fully intact today to test how closely they resembled the pyramids of Egypt nor is there any proof that they even resembled an Egyptian pyramid at all.
There are two surviving pyramid-like structures still available to study, one at Helleniko and the other at Ligourio, a village near the ancient theatre Epidaurus. With these two pyramid’s base stones remaining, it is possible to determine that Grecian pyramids existed, but were not used as the Egyptians used them. These buildings were not constructed in the same manner as the pyramids in Egypt. The buildings at Helleniko and Ligourio were no more than 100 feet tall and were surrounded by walls, with the base of the Helleniko pyramid being nine meters by 7 meters. The stone used to build the pyramids was limestone quarried locally and was cut to fit, not into freestanding blocks like the Great Pyramid of Giza. The base of the structures also differed from the Egyptian pyramids as they were rectangular, not square. This simple construction shape made it very difficult to make the top of the building come together in a point. As such, it makes more sense that these structures could have been peaked by a roof or platform.

Taj mahal

The tomb
The focus of Taj Mahal is the white marble tomb, which stands on a square plinth consisting of a symmetrical building with an iwan, an arch-shaped doorway, topped by a large dome. Like most Mughal tombs, basic elements are Persian in origin.

Simplified diagram of the Taj Mahal floor plan.

Main iwan and side pishtaqs
The base structure is a large, multi-chambered structure. The base is essentially a cube with chamfered edges and is roughly 55 metre on each side (see floor plan, right). On the long sides, a massive pishtaq, or vaulted archway, frames the iwan with a similar arch-shaped balcony. These main arches extend above the roof of the building by an integrated facade. On either side of main arch, additional pishtaqs are stacked above and below. This motif of stacked pishtaqs is replicated on chamfered corner areas as well. The design is completely symmetrical on all sides of the building. Four minarets, one at each corner of the plinth, facing the chamfered corners, frame the tomb. The main chamber houses the cenotaphs of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan with their graves located on lower level.

Base, dome, and minaret
The marble dome that surmounts the tomb is its most spectacular feature. Its height is about the same size as the base of the building, about 35 metre and is accentuated as it sits on a cylindrical "drum" of about 7 metre high. Because of its shape, the dome is often called an onion dome (also called an amrud or guava dome). The top is decorated with a lotus design, which serves to accentuate its height as well. The shape of the dome is emphasised by four smaller domed chattris (kiosks) placed at its corners. The chattri domes replicate the onion shape of main dome. Their columned bases open through the roof of the tomb and provide light to the interior. Tall decorative spires (guldastas) extend from edges of base walls,and provide visual emphasis to the height of the dome. The lotus motif is repeated on both the chattris and guldastas. The dome and chattris are topped by a gilded finial, which mixes traditional Persian and Hindu decorative elements.

The main dome is crowned by a gilded spire or finial. The finial, made of gold until the early 1800s, is now made of bronze. The finial provides a clear example of integration of traditional Persian and Hindu decorative elements. The finial is topped by a moon, a typical Islamic motif, whose horns point heavenward. Because of its placement on the main spire, the horns of moon and finial point combine to create a trident shape, reminiscent of traditional Hindu symbols of Shiva.[9]
At the corners of plinth stand minarets, the four large towers each more than 40 metre tall. The minarets display Taj Mahal's penchant for symmetry. These towers are designed as working minarets, a traditional element of mosques as a place for a muezzin to call the Islamic faithful to prayer. Each minaret is effectively divided into three equal parts by two working balconies that ring the tower. At the top of the tower is a final balcony surmounted by a chattri that mirrors the design of those on the tomb. The minaret chattris share the same finishing touches, a lotus design topped by a gilded finial. Each of the minarets were constructed slightly outside of the plinth, so that in the event of collapse, a typical occurrence with many such tall constructions of the period, the material from the towers would tend to fall away from the tomb.

June 4, 2007

new to blogging

hi i'm natarajan doing my engg i'm new to blogging this blog is mainly to bring out the ha ppenings in and around chennai i plan to post about many social issues wich has to be solved
i don't know whether tis blog will have traffic and another reason i have plan to join ppp to
make my purse always heavier

April 20, 2007

Nathuram Godse

Nathuram Godse was born in Baramati, Pune District. His father, Vinayak Vamanrao Godse, was a post office employee and his mother was Lakshmi (Godavari before marriage). Upon birth, he was named Ramachandra by his parents.

A commonly held theory suggests that Nathuram was given his name because of an unfortunate incident. Before he was born, his parents had three sons and a daughter. All three boys died in their infancy. Fearing a curse that targeted male children, young Ramachandra was brought up as a girl for the first few years of his life, including having his nose pierced and being made to wear a nose-ring ("Nath" in Marathi). It was then that he earned the nickname "Nathuram" (literally "Ram with a nose-ring"). After his younger brother was born, they switched to treating him like a boy. However, other biographers dismiss this claim, together with claims that Godse was a homosexual, as a fabrication by the Congress Party of India, meant to exploit the prejudices against transvestites and homosexuals in conservative Indian society in order to demonize Godse.

Nathuram Godse attended the local school at Baramati up through the fifth standard. Then he was sent to live with an aunt in Pune so that he could study at an English-language school. During his school days, Gandhi was an idol to him.

In 1930, Nathuram's father was transferred to the town of Ratnagiri. While staying with his parents at Ratnagiri, the young Nathuram first met Veer Savarkar, a proponent of Hindutva.

Assassination of Mohandas K. Gandhi

Godse assassinated Gandhi on January 30, 1948, approaching him during the evening prayer, bowing, and shooting him three times at close range with a Beretta semi-automatic pistol.

March 7, 2007

The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is an historic fortified complex at the very heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River (to the south), Saint Basil's Cathedral (often mistaken as the Kremlin) and Red Square (to the east) and the Alexander Garden (to the west). It is the best known of kremlins (Russian citadels) and includes four palaces, four cathedrals, and the enclosing Kremlin Wall with Kremlin towers. The complex serves as the official residence of the President of Russia.
By 1475, the principalities of medieval Russia were united under Grand Prince Ivan III, who assumed the title of the Grand Prince of All Rus, envisioning Moscow as the only legitimate successor to Rome and Constantinople. In order to illustrate his imperial ambitions, Ivan organised the reconstruction of the Kremlin, inviting a number of skilled architects from Renaissance Italy, like Pietro Antonio Solari and Marco Ruffo. It was during his reign that three extant cathedrals of the Kremlin, the Deposition Church, and the Palace of Facets were constructed. The highest building of the city and Muscovite Russia was the Ivan the Great Bell Tower, built in 1505-08 and augmented to its present height in 1600.
After construction of the new Kremlin walls and churches was over in 1516, the monarch decreed that no structures should be built in the immediate vicinity of the citadel. Furthermore, the Kremlin was separated from the walled merchant town (Kitai-gorod) by a 30-metre-wide moat, over which the Intercession Cathedral on the Moat was constructed during the reign of Ivan the Terrible. The same tsar also renovated some of his grandfather's palaces, added a new palace and cathedral for his sons, and endowed the Trinity metochion inside the Kremlin. The metochion was administrated by the Trinity Monastery and boasted the graceful tower church of St. Sergius, which was described by foreigners as one of the finest in the country.
During the Time of Troubles, the Kremlin was held by the Polish-Lithuanian forces for two years, between 21 September 1610 and 26 October 1612. The Kremlin's liberation by the volunteer army of Kuzma Minin and Dmitry Pozharsky paved the way for the election of Mikhail Romanov as the new tsar. During his reign and that of his son Alexis, the eleven-domed Upper Saviour Cathedral, Armorial Gate, Terem Palace, Amusement Palace and the palace of Patriarch Nikon were built. Following the death of Alexis, the Kremlin witnessed the Moscow Uprising of 1682, from which tsar Peter barely escaped alive. This emotional trauma made him dislike the Kremlin. Three decades later, Peter abandoned the residence of his forefathers for his new capital, Saint Petersburg.


The tower is open 9:30 AM to Midnight daily during the summer, 10Am - 11PM Winter. Admission: Elevator to first floor, 17 fr.; ages 4-11, 8 fr. to second floor; 34 fr., 4-11, 16 fr. to third floor 51 fr, ages 4-11, 23 fr. under 4 free to all levels. I seem to recall that the fare was 60 fr. to the top a few months ago, so there may have been an adjustment over the past three years. I have not looked into group fares, but I suspect that the discount would not be substantial, if any. The Eiffel Tower is about the only tourist site in Paris that does not participate in the Museum Card, which allows admission to about 90 sites for a fixed discount price. Levels 1 and 2 include the Jules Verne restaurant as well as other shops. The 3rd level includes the best view, of course, and a display of Paris and Eiffel memorabilia.The French Franc has been worth about $.15 for the last few years.
TOWER BASICSYears Built: 1887-1889 for 1889 Universal Exhibition and Centennial
of the French Revolution
Engineers : Maurice Koechlin and Emile Nouguier
Architect : Stephen Sauvestre
Contractor : Gustave Eiffel
Occasion for Construction: 1889 Universal Exhibition
Construction Period: 23 January 1887 to March 1889 (2years,2months,5days)
Tower inaugurated: March 31, 1889
Number of Steel Workers: 300
Number of Workers Killed during Construction: 1
Rivets: 2,500,000
Steel pieces: 18,038
Height: 300.51 meters (986 feet) (+/- 15 cm depending on temperature)
1st level - 57 meters
2nd level - 115 meters
3rd level - 276 meters
Height including television antenna: 320.755 meters (1052 feet)
Weight: 7,000 tons (1,000 tons removed during 1990's renovation)
Base: 412 feet square, although also noted as about 2.5 acres
Foundation Pressure: 58.26 to 64 psi (9000 psf)
Paint: 50 tons every 7 years
Paint Color: Dark Brown
Steps to Top: 1789 (Birnbaum), 1671 (Joseph Harriss), 1652 (others),
1665 (Official Eiffel Tower Website)
Steps walkable by visitors (Ground to 2nd floor): 704
Year lighting added contributing to Paris' reputation as "City of Lights": 1986
Lighting : 352 projectors of 1000 watts
Day German flag was hoisted on the Eiffel Tower as German army entered
and occupied Paris: June 14, 1940
Number of Visitors, 1987: 4,000,000
Number of visitors, 1996 : 5,530,279
Numbers of visitors from the beginning to 1996: 167,664,439
First Radio Transmission: 1918
First TV transmission: 1957
Maximum sway in wind: 12 cm
Tallest Structure in the World: 1889-1930 (until Chrysler Building)
2nd Tallest Structure in the World: 1930-1932 (Until Empire State Bldg)
Parachute Descent: 1984 by two Englishmen
Bicycle Descent: 1923 Journalist
Mountaneering Ascent: 1954
Visibility on a clear day: 67 kilometers (42 miles)