February 22, 2009

Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft (FGFA)

The Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft (FGFA) is a fifth-generation fighter which is being developed by Russia and India. It is a derivative project from the PAK FA being developed for the Indian Air Force (FGFA is the official designation for the Indian version). The program is initiated to develop a fifth generation fighter aircraft to fill a role similar to that of Lockheed Martin's F-22 Raptor and the F-35 Lightning II, the world's first fifth-generation fighter jets. According to HAL chairman A.K. Baweja shortly after the India-Russia Inter-Governmental Committee meeting on 18 September 2008, the Russian aircraft will be a single-seater, the Indian FGFA will be a twin seater, but not a trainer version of the Russian counterpart. Two separate prototypes with minimum common technology will be developed, one by Russia (designated the Sukhoi T-50) and a separate one by India (designated FGFA).


Although there is no reliable information about the PAK FA and FGFA specifications yet, it is known from interviews with people in the Russian Air Force that it will be stealthy, have the ability to supercruise, be outfitted with the next generation of air-to-air, air-to-surface, and air-to-ship missiles, and incorporate an AESA radar. The FGFA will use on her first flights 2 Saturn 117S engines (about 14.5 ton thrust each). The 117S is an advanced version of the AL-31F, but built with the experience gained in the AL-41F program. The AL-41F powered the Mikoyan MFI fighter (Mikoyan Project 1.44). Later versions of the PAK FA will use a completely new engine (17.5 ton thrust each), developed by NPO Saturn or FGUP MMPP Salyut.

General characteristics

* Crew: 1 and 2 (pilot)
* Length: 22.0 m (72 ft 2 in)
* Wingspan: 14.2 m (46 ft 7 in)
* Height: 6.05 m (19 ft 10 in)
* Wing area: 78.8 m² (848 ft²)
* Empty weight: 18,500 kg (40,786 lb)
* Loaded weight: 26,000 kg (57,320 lb)
* Useful load: 7,500 kg (16,535 lb)
* Max takeoff weight: 37,000 kg (81,571 lb)
* Powerplant: 2× Saturn-Lyulka AL-41F turbofan
o Dry thrust: 96.1 kN (9,800 kgf, 21,605 lbf) each
o Thrust with afterburner: 152 kN (15,500 kgf, 34,172 lbf) each


* Maximum speed: Mach 2+ at altitude (2450+ km/h, 1,500+ mph)
* g-limits: 9g)
* Cruise speed: 1,300 km/h (807.8 mph)
* Ferry range: 4,000 to 5,500 km (2,485 to 3,418 mi)
* Service ceiling: 20,000 m (65,617 ft)
* Rate of climb: 350 m/s (68,898 ft/min)
* Wing loading: 470 kg/m² (96.3 lb/ft²)
* Thrust/weight: 0.84 (dry thrust)
* Minimum thrust/weight:
o With afterburner: 1.19
* Runway length requirement: 350 m (1,148 ft)
* Endurance: 3.3 hrs (198 mins)


* Guns: 2× 30 mm internal cannon
* Hardpoints: 8 total, 4 on each side of the aircraft.


* Radar: N050(?)BRLS AESA/PESA Radar (Enhancement of IRBIS-E) on SU-35
o Frequency: 3 mm (0.118 in)
o Diameter: 0.7 m (2 ft 4 in)
o Targets: 32 tracked, 8 engaged
o Range: 400 km (248 mi)
+ EPR: 3 m² (32.3 ft²) at 160 km (99.4 mi)
+ RCS: 0.01 m² at 90 km (55 mi)
+ Azimuth: +/-70°, +90/-50°
o Power: 4,000 W
o Weight: 65 to 80 kg (143 to 176 lb)

February 17, 2009


There are various crimes in the world. Among those, Cyber Crime is the one which is an unavoidable problem in the cyber world. Crime refers to action which is performed against law. It consists of specific crimes dealing with computer and networks. In addition to cyber crime there is also ‘Computer-Supported Crime’ which covers the use of computers by criminals for communication and document or data storage. There are various types of cyber crimes. Some of them are as follows,

1. HACKING: It means an illegal intrusion into a computer system or network. Equivalent term for hacking is cracking. It also means act committed towards breaking into a computer or network. Hackers write or use ready made computer programs to attack the target computer. They hack for personal gains such as stealing the credit card information, transferring money from bank accounts to their own account followed by withdrawal of money.
2. CYBER STALKING: Cyber Stalking can be defined as the threatening behavior of the cyber criminal towards the victim by using internet services. Stalking refers to the repeated acts of harassment targeting the victim such as following the victim, making harassing phone calls etc.
3. PHISHING: The act of sending an email in an attempt to make the user into surrendering private information that will be used for identity theft. For example the user gets an email. The email directs the user to visit a website where they are asked to update personal information, such as passwords and credit card information. The website is a fake one and set up only to steal the user’s information.

Software Piracy, Internet Relay Chat Crime, Virus Dissemination, Net Extortion, Credit Card related crimes are other type of crimes. The various groups of hackers include Children’s and adolescents between the age group of 6-18 years, organized hackers and professional hackers.

As we all know that “Prevention is always better than cure”. It is always better to take certain precautions while operating the net. To prevent cyber stalking avoid disclosing your identity to strangers in public places. Avoid sending any photograph online particularly to strangers as there have been chances of misuse of the photographs. Avoid sharing your credit card information, passwords, and addresses in public sites to prevent phishing. If any strangers are black mailing or threatening you then inform immediately to the crime service. If you follow some these precaution measures, then you can prevent cyber crime.